Allaah has blessed the month of Ramadaan with numerous advantages and virtues over other months. This is the month in which the Qur’an was revealed. In one of the odd nights of the last ten days of this month is the Night of Decree, in which worshipping Allaah is better than worshipping Him for a thousand months. When Ramazaan begins, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of Hell are closed. At the end of every night of Ramazaan, Allaah will forgive all the sins of those who really observed fasting in a proper manner, and avoided every act of disobedience.
At-Tirmidhi 682, Ibn Maajah Vol 1:1642, Sunan Nasa’i Vol 3:2109 and Ibn Khuzaymah narrated: “When the first night of the month of Ramadaan comes, the devils and rebellious jinn are chained up and the gates of Hell are closed, and not one gate of it is opened. The gates of Paradise are opened and not one gate of it is closed. And a caller cries out: ‘O seeker of good, proceed; O seeker of evil, desist. And Allaah has those whom He redeems from the Fire, and that happens every night.” Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 759
Saum in Arabic means “to abstain from something”. In Islam Saum means “abstaining from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset with the sincere intention of doing for the sake of Allaah.
It is from the nature of humans to ask and to wonder why they do things. Muslims do things to please Allaah, and they can please Allaah only by obeying Him and practicing His deen. It is a commandment and a clear order from Allaah upon us and we have no other choice by to obey Allaah and Please Him out of Love and Fear at the same time. Allaah said: “O you who believe, fasting has been prescribed for you as it has been prescribed for people before you so that you will (learn how to) attain Taqwa” Qur’an, Surah al-Baqarah, 2:183
Ibn ‘Umar(R) reports that Allah’s Messengerﷺsaid: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):
- To testify that none has the right to be worshiped but Allah and Muhammadﷺ is Allah’s Messenger.
- To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.
- To pay Zakath (i.e. obligatory charity).
- To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Makkah)
- To observe fast during the month of Ramazaan. [Sahih Al Bukhari Vol 1:7]
Abu Huraira(R) reported Allah’s Messenger ﷺas saying: Whenever you sight the new moon (of the month of Ramadan) observe fast and when you sight it (the new moon of Shawwal) break it, and if the sky is cloudy for you, then observe fast for thirty days. Sahih Muslim 1081 a (Book 6, Hadith 2378) and Sunan Nasai Vol 1: 1654
When sighting the new moon for Ramadaan and any other month
”اللَّهُمَّ أَهْلِلْهُ عَلَيْنَا بِالْيُمْنِ وَالإِيمَانِ وَالسَّلاَمَةِ وَالإِسْلاَمِ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكَ اللَّهُ “
Allaahumma Ahlilhu Alaina Bil Yumni wal Eemani Was-slamati Wal Islami Rabbi Wa Rabuk Allaah Meaning: “O Allaah, bring it over us with blessing and faith, and security and Islam. My Lord and your Lord is Allaah. Classed as Sahih by Albani, Sunan At Tirmidhi 3451
There is no Specific way of welcoming Ramazaan, but the Muslim should welcome it with joy and happiness and thanking Allaah for enabling him to reach Ramazaan, for He has caused him to be among the living who compete in doing righteous deeds. Reaching Ramazaan is a great blessing from Allaah. Hence the Prophet ﷺused to give his companions the glad tidings of the arrival of Ramazaan and explain its virtues, and the great reward that Allaah has prepared for those who fast and who spend the night in prayer, Classed as Sahih by Albani- Sunan Nasa’i 2106. It is prescribed for the Muslim to welcome this blessed month with sincere repentance and preparations to fast and pray qiyaam, with a sound intention and sincere resolve.
Shaykh Uthamin (rahimahullaah): said:
The ruling concerning this is, this phrase Ramadan Kareem is not correct, and the only phrase that should be said is Ramadan Mubarak or what resembles that. Because Ramadan is not the one that gives such that it can be called generous (Kareem), rather it is only Allah the Exalted that put virtue in it and made it a virtuous month and made the time period for performing (the fasting) a pillar from Islam.
We Muslims fast to Please Allaah only and by the method shown by Prophet Muhammad’sﷺ, as Allaah said in many places of the Qur’an “أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ” meaning obey Allaah and obey the Messenger. So in fasting also we have to see the Way Prophet Muhammadﷺtaught us and how the Sahaba Ikram(R) understood. According to ahadith, fasting is the fifth pillar of Islam as mentioned in Sahih al- Bukhari Vol 1:7.
Fasting is compulsory for all sane, healthy, adult Muslims, male and female. People who are exempted to fast are insane, physically ill, minors (under the age of puberty), travelers, menstruating women, women experiencing post childbirth bleeding, breastfeeding women and pregnant women are all not required to fast. But they should compensate for the missed fast after overcoming from these excused states like illness, traveling, menstruating women etc.
After mentioning fasting as an obligation in this ayath of the Qur’an Surah Baqrah 2:183, Allaah mentions the purpose of observing the fast. He concludes the ayath by saying: “لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ” meaning “In order that you may become pious.”
It is mandatory for every Muslim to fast during Ramazaan and it is one of the well established Pillar of Islam. The month of Ramazaan has many great virtues that are not found in any of the other months. Allaah’s Messengerﷺsaid: “Whoever fasts in Ramazaan with firm belief and hope of a reward (from Allaah), his past sins will be forgiven.” Sahih Al-Bukhari 2014 (Vol. 3, Book 32, Hadith 231)
The pillars of fasting are:
- The Intention (Niyya) ie, to sincerely fast for the sake of Allaah. The intention need not be uttered. It is in reality an act of the heart which does not involve the tongue.
There is no fast for the person who did not intend to fast from the night before.” Abu Dawood, 2454
- Abstaining from the acts that break the fast. Qur’an Surah Baqrah 2:187
We eat and drink something at suhoor(the time before dawn), and that we delay it until just before the adhaan of Fajr. The Prophetﷺsaid: “Take Suhur as there is a blessing (barakah) in it.” Sahih Al Bukhari 1923 (Vol 3:146)
“Suhoor is blessed food, and it involves being different from the people of the Book. What a good suhoor for the believer is dates.” Abu Dawood, no. 2345; Saheeh al‐Targheeb, 1/448.
Not eating too much, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The son of Adam fills no worse vessel than his stomach.” Jami at-Tirmidhi, Vol 4: 2380;
The following acts in general, when done knowingly and deliberately in the days of Ramazaan, will invalidate the fast in addition to being considered great sins
- Intentional eating, drinking
- Sexual intercourse
- Intentional vomiting
The Prophet ﷺsaid: “If he forgets, and eats and drinks, then let him complete his fast, for Allaah has fed him and given him to drink.” Sahih Al Bukhaari 1933 (Vol 3:154)
The Prophet ﷺsaid: “Whoever vomits unintentionally does not have to make up the fast later on, but whoever vomits on purpose does have to make up the fast.” Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol3:89
The Prophet ﷺsaid: “Allaah has lifted the obligation of fasting and part of the prayer from the traveller, and He has lifted the obligation of fasting from the pregnant and breastfeeding woman.”Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol3:85;
The fast is disrupted (and there is no point or reward then in continuing to fast) when a woman sees the blood caused by either of:
- Post-childbirth bleeding
A Muslim’s fast will not break if he/she does the following things
- The fasting person is allowed to bathe and submerge himself in water to cool off.
- Taking any permissible medicine that does not reach the stomach or nourish the body is also allowed (i.e. eye drops, skin medications, etc.).
- Applying oil to head, perfumes and smelling good scents is also allowed.
- Kissing and touching ones wife for one who has the ability to control himself.Sahih Al-Bukhari 1927 (Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 149 )
- Cupping (Hijaamah) and blood-letting [or donation] for medical purposes.
- Those things which one could not protect one’s self from such as swallowing one’s saliva [or sputum], the dust of the road etc.
- The Insane person
- The Pregnant and breast-feeding women
- The Traveler and the (not chronically) ill
Elderly men and women, the terminally ill (who have no hope of being cured of their illness) and all those in comparable situations who find it difficult to fast are allowed to abstain from fasting. They do not have to make up for the missed days, but are required to feed a poor person a Mudd of food for each day of fasting that they missed. Feeding the poor is not to be done by giving cash, instead local staple food is to be given like rice, Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 3/140
“Anas(R) could no longer fast. So he made a plate of Tharid (broth, bread and meat) and invited thirty poor persons and fed them.” Tafseer ibn Kathir, Vol. 1, P. 498, Eng. TranslationandShaikh Albani in Irwa Ul Ghalil 4/21
عن أنسِ بنِ مالكٍ أنه ضعُفَ عن الصومِ عامًا فصنع جفنةَ ثريدٍ ودعا ثلاثينَ مسكينًا فأشبعَهم
“The same ruling also applies for the pregnant and breast-feeding women if they fear for themselves or their children or fetuses. That they have to feed the poor only, and do not have to make up the fasts. Among the Sahaabah, this was the view of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him). Ibn Qudaamah also narrated this in al-Mughni (3/37) from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him).
Abu Dawood (2318) narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas and ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with them) that this phrase – “those who can fast with difficulty” [Qur’an Surah Baqarah 2:184] was a concession granted to old men and old women who find it difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feed one poor person for each day instead, and the same for pregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid. Abu Dawood said: i.e., for their children – they may not fast and may feed (the poor) instead. Al-Nawawi said: its isnaad is hasan.
This was also narrated by al-Bazzaar who added at the end: Ibn ‘Abbaas(may Allaah be pleased with him) used to say to a cohabit of his who was pregnant: “You are like one who cannot fast, so you have to pay the fidyah but you do not have to make up the fasts.” Al-Daaraqutni classed its isnaad as saheeh, as stated by al-Haafiz in al-Talkhees. Also mentioned in Tafseer ibn Kathir for tafseer of Qur’an Surah Baqarah 2:184, Vol. 1, P. 498, Eng. Translation
“The Messenger of Allaahﷺused to break his fast before offering (Maghrib) Prayer with some fresh dates, but if there were no fresh dates, he would take a few dry dates and if there were no dry dates he would take a few drops of water.” Sunan Abu Dawud 2348 and 2349, Tirmidhi 3:79Riyad as-Salihin1238 and 1239.
Hastening to break the fast without delay is from the Sunnah of the Prophet (May Allaah honour Him and grant Him peace). Hastening means to break the fast immediately after sunset without any further delay. Allaah’s Messenger, Prophet Muhammadﷺsaid: “People will continue to be all right as long as they hasten in the breaking of the fast”. Sahih al Bukhari Vol 3:178, Sahih Al Muslim 2417 and Riyad us Salihin1233
ذَهَـبَ الظَّمَـأُ، وَابْتَلَّـتِ العُـروق، وَثَبَـتَ الأجْـرُ إِنْ شـاءَ الله
“Zahabazzama’ wabtallat-al uruqa wa sabat-al-ajru Insha-Allaah”
– Translation of the meaning of this supplication in English: “The thirst is gone and the veins are moistened and the reward is confirmed if Allaah wills”. Sunan Abu Dawood 2350 or Abu Dawood, Vol 2:765; its isnaad was classed as hasan by al-Daaraqutni, 2/185
Allah’s Messengerﷺsaid, “Whoever observes fasts during the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allah’s rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol 1:38 and Vol 3:125
Tarawih, is a voluntary prayer by which a true believer intends to seek the pleasure of Allaah and draw near to Him.
A’isha(R) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came out during the night and observed prayer in the mosque and some of the people prayed along with him. When it was the fourth night, the mosque was filled to its utmost capacity but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not come out. Some persons among then cried:” Prayer.” But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not come to them till he came out for the morning prayer. When he had completed the morning prayer, he turned his face to the people and recited Tashahhud (I bear testi- mony that there is no god but Allah and I bear testimony that Muhammad is His Messen- ger) and then said: Your affair was not hidden from me in the night, but I was afraid that (my observing prayer continuously) might make the night prayer obligatory for you and you might be unable to perform it. Sahih Muslim 761 b (NE1667) and Sahih Al Bhukari 8:134 (6113)
Allaah’s Messengerﷺhas encouraged offering prayer at night regularly. This prayer is known as the ‘night prayer’ (Qiyamul-Layl) or (Tahajjud). During Ramazaan this prayer is also called as Tarawih. It is allowed to offer the Tarawih, at any time starting from the conclusion of’ Isha (Night) prayer until the commencement of the Fajr (Dawn) prayer. The Prophetﷺalways prayed eleven Rak’ahs (units of prayer) for the optional night prayer, whether it was during Ramazaan or any other time of the year. Sahih Bhukari 1147 (Vol 2, Book 21 Hadith 248 and Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 322), Sahih Muslim 736 a (Book 4, Hadith 1602), Sunan Abi Dawud 1335 , Jami` at-Tirmidhi 440, sunan Nasai Vol 2:1697
Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari said, “I went out with Umar ibn alKhattab in Ramadan to the mosque and the people there were spread out in groups. Some men were praying by themselves, whilst others were praying in small groups. Umar said, ‘By Allah! It would be better in my opinion if these people gathered behind one reciter.’ So he gathered them behind Ubayy ibn Kab. Then I went out with him another night and the people were praying behind their Qur’an reciter. Umar said, ‘How excellent this new way is, but what you miss while you are asleep is better than what you watch in prayer.’ He meant the end of the night, and people used to watch the beginning of the night in prayer.” Sahih al-Bukhari 2010 (Vol 3:227) and Muwatta Malik, Prayer in Ramadan Book 6, Hadith 3 (Arabic – Book 6, Hadith 249)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn Yusuf that as- Sa’ib ibn Yazid said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered Ubayy ibn Kab and Tamim ad-Dari to watch the night in prayer with the people for eleven rakas.The reciterof the Qur’an would recite the Mi’in (a group of medium-sized suras) until we would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. And we would not leave until the approach of dawn.” Muwatta Malik, Prayer in Ramadan Book 6, Hadith 4 (Arabic – Book 6, Hadith 250)
The Prophetﷺsaid: “Whoever performed the night prayer in Ramazaan with sincere faith and hoping for a reward from Allaah, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” Sahih al Bukhari 2008 (Vol 3:226 and Vol 1:37)
One of the special deeds of Ramazaan is Iti’kaf. Performing Iti’kaf means to confine oneself in seclusion in a masjid for the purpose of worshipping Allaah alone, leaving every worldly and personal affair. The mind of the person who observes Iti’kaf concentrates exclusively on the goal of pleasing Allaah . He is engaged in various types of worship, repentance, and beseeching Allaah’s forgiveness. He offers as many voluntarily prayers as he can, saying words of remembrance and invocations, etc. to Allaah. In this sense, practicing Iti’kaf is a combination of many acts of worship.
Allaah’s Messengerﷺperformed Iti’kaf in the last ten days of the month of Ramazaan. Sahih Al-Bukhari 2025 (Vol. 3, Book 33, Hadith 242)
The basic principle is that Iti’kaf is Nawafil(Optional), not obligatory, unless one made a vow(promise) to do it, in which case it becomes obligatory, ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allaah, during the (Pre-Islamic) Jaahiliyyah I vowed to observe Iti’kaf for one night in al-Masjid al-Haraam.” He said: “Fulfil your vow.” Sahih Al-Bukhari 2042 (Vol. 3, Book 33, Hadith 258)
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Iti’kaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques” Qur’an Surah Baqarah 2:187
‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to observe Iti’kaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan until Allaah took his soul, then his wives observed Iti’kaf after he was gone. Sahih al-Bukhaari, 2026; Muslim, 1172
Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo’ (6/505): It is not valid for men or women to observe Iti’kaf anywhere but in the mosque; it is not valid in the mosque of a woman’s house or the mosque of a man’s house, which is a space that is set aside for prayer.
If a woman wants to observe Iti’kaf, she should observe Iti’kaf in the mosque so long as that does not involve anything that is forbidden according to sharee’ah. If that does involve anything that is forbidden then she should not do Iti’kaf. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (20/264) and Shaykh Ibn Baaz said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 15/437
Narrated `Aisha: (the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Messenger ﷺused to let his head in (the house) while he was in the mosque and I would comb and oil his hair. When in Iti’kaf he used not to enter the house except for a need. Sahih Al-Bukhari 2029(Vol. 3, Book 33, Hadith 246)
The Night of Decree (Laylatul-Qadr) is more virtuous and meritorious than a thousand months. It is the night of Ramazaan in which the Qur’an was brought from lohe Mahfuz to Baitul Izza. Allaah says in the Glorious Qur’an: “Verily, We have sent it (this Qur’an) down in the Night of Decree (Al-Qadr). And what will make you know what the Night of Decree is? The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months.” Qur’an Surah Qadr 97:1-3
ProphetﷺSaid: Whoever stood for the prayers in the night of Qadr out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allaah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven .” Sahih Al-Bukhari 2014 (Vol. 3, Book 32, Hadith 231 and Vol 1:35)
This night occurs every year during one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramazaan. The exact time of its occurrence is unknown. The only thing that is clear concerning its time is that it occurs during the last ten nights of Ramazaan(odd nights of last 10 days i.e., 21,23,25,27 and 29 of Ramazaan). Sahih Al-Bukhari 2020 (Vol. 3, Book 32, Hadith 237)
اَللَّهُمَّ اِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ ، تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي
‘Allaahumma innaka ‘afuwwun tuhibbul-‘afwa, fa’fu ‘anni. Meaning: O Allaah, You are Forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me. Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 34, Hadith 3850 and Jami at Tirmidhi 3513
Narrated ‘Ubada bin As-Samit: The Prophetﷺcame out to inform us about the Night of Qadr but two Muslims were quarreling with each other. So, the Prophetﷺsaid, “I came out to inform you about the Night of Qadr but such-and-such persons were quarreling, so the news about it had been taken away; yet that might be for your own good, so search for it on the 29th, 27th and 25th (of Ramadan). Sahih Al-Bukhari 2023 (Vol. 3, Book 32, Hadith 240)
There are two forms of charity in Islam – obligatory and voluntary. Zakath is an obligatory charity, it comes from the verb Zakath, which signifies “to thrive,” “to be wholesome,” “to be pure” means purification. Giving up of a portion of the wealth one may possess in excess of what is needed for sustenance, is to “purify” or legalize it so that the remainder may lawfully be used by the alms giver.
Apart from Zakath, the Qur’an and Hadeeth (Saying and actions of Muhammadﷺ)also stress on sadaqah, or voluntary almsgiving in the form of money or food etc, which is intended for the needy and the time duration is not fixed.
Zakath comes under compulsory act for those who fits on Nisab (required amount). The payment of Zakath is obligatory, as it is one of the five pillars of Islam,Sahih Al Bukhari Vol 1:7.
Two things are necessary conditions for Zakath i.e., amount of wealth and the time duration as mentioned in Islam. Every Muslim who owns a fixed, minimum amount of wealth (called Nisab), and who satisfies certain other conditions, must pay Zakath.
The Nisab amount for gold is twenty Mithqals, or ~85 grams. The Nisab for silver is one hundred and forty Mithqals, or ~535 grams. If the amount of gold and silver jewelry that a woman owns is less than these amounts, there is no Zakath due upon her jewelry.
The amount of gold that requires Zakath is around 85 grams, when this amount or more has remained unchanged in one’s possession for one full year. The required Zakath in this case is one-fourth of a tenth (2.5%), which is approximately 2.125 grams.
Silver requires Zakath to be paid when it reaches 595 grams or more and when this amount remains unchanged in one’s possession for a full year. The amount of Zakath required in this case is also one-fourth of a tenth (2.5%), which is approximately 14.87 grams.
When it is worth the amount of gold that requires Zakath and when this amount remains above the Nisab value for a full year. Zakath in this case is also one-fourth of a tenth, or 2.5%.
Zakath is spent on eight groups of people, as mentioned in the Qur’an (Arabic word As-Sadaqat here it means compulsory charity i.e., Zakath): “Zakath expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allaah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allaah . And Allaah is Knowing and Wise.Qur’an Surah Tawbah 9:60
- Poor people — who have few belongings
- Destitute people — who have absolutely nothing
- Zakath collectors — for their work in collecting and distributing the zakath
- Muslim Reverts — who may be estranged from their families and in need of help
- Slaves — to free them from slavery in times/places where slavery has existed
- Debtors — to help free them from insurmountable debts
- Those working in the path of Allah
- Wayfarers — who are stranded during their travels
In an Islamic state, the Muslim leader (Khalifah, Ameer etc.) is responsible for the collection of Zakath. He is also responsible for making sure that the Zakath is distributed amongst those who are worthy of receiving it. In a situation where the Muslim lives in a land (i.e. country. state, province. etc.) where there is no Muslim ruler, and the governing authorities are non-Muslims, then it is left to the individual to pay his Zakath.
The Prophet ﷺsaid: “Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and does not pay the Zakât of his wealth, then on the Day of Resurrection, his wealth will be made like a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes (or two poisonous glands in its mouth). The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure’.” Sahih Al Bukhari 1403 (Vol 2:486)
Types of Possessions that require zakath other then gold, silver and money are
- Women’s Jewelry that is made of Gold or Silver and is Used for Beautification Purposes.
- Livestock Animals: Camels, Cows, and Sheep.
- Food Grains and Fruit and few other things.
Zakath ul-fitr or sadqat ul-fitr means “the purifying charity of breaking the fast“. It is a prescribed amount of food given by the Muslims during the last few days of Ramazaan if collected by some authority or on the morning of Eid prior to the Eid prayer.
Zakat ul-fitr was ordained by Allaah for two reasons:
- To purify those who fasted, cleansing their fast from marring things such as indecent talk and minor sinning.
- To feed the poor Muslims so that they have enough provision during the Eid.
Abu Dawood 1622, Nasa’i Vol 5:550 and Ibn Majah Vol 1:585
The best time to pay Zakatul-Fitr is the time from dawn on ‘Eid Day (the first day of the Month of Shawwal) until just before the ‘Eid prayer, Sahih Al-Bukhari 1503. However, those who give it before the morning of the ‘Eid (i.e. a day or two before the ‘Eid) have properly fulfilled the obligation. Those who give it away after the ‘Eid prayer, it is considered as a voluntary charity (Sadaqah) only. In other words it is not counted as Zakatul-Fitr.
The Prophet’s Companion Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri said: “In the lifetime of Allaah’s Messengerﷺwe used to give Zakatul-Fitr on behalf of the young and the old, the free man and the slave, as one Sa’of food, or one Sa’ of cottage cheese, or one Sa’ of barley, or one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of raisins.” Sahih Al-Bukhari 1510 (Vol. 2, Book 25, Hadith 586)
Misconception:It is not permissible to give the equivalent value of the food in the form of money and the local staple food like rice, wheat etc can be given,Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 3/140.
Zakatul-Fitr,should be given to the poor and needy, and no one else, Shaykh al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him), as it says inal-Sharh al-Mumti’ (6/117). A Sa’is equivalent to approximately 3 kilograms, estimation of Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), who reckoned the weight of zakaat al-fitr as being approximately three kilograms and also as per Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him). Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 3/140
Eid/Eed is a day of gathering. It is derived from `Aada (meaning returned), because people return to it periodically. Islamically, Eid is a day on which Allaah (Glory be to Him) showers His slaves with His blessings and generosity. So at this time that the merciful Allaah (Glory be to Him) extended his generosity, how great it would be for pious people and sinners to confess (their defects and faults), and hope for receiving His grants. From authentic ahadeeth that are cited above and subsequently, it is concluded that the Muslims have two annual Eids: al-Fitr and al-Adha.
Anas (R) said: “The Prophet Muhammadﷺcame to Madeenah and the people of Madeenah had in Jahiliyah two days of play and amusement (they are the day of Niarooz (New Years Day) and the day of Maharajaan (Final Day of the Year). So, The Prophet Muhammadﷺsaid: “I came to you and you had in Jahiliyah two days of play and amusement. Indeed, Allaah has replaced them for you by that which is better than them: The day of Nahr (slaughtering) and the day of Fitr (breaking fast).” Musnad Ahmad Vol 3: 103, 178 and 235
The Eid prayer is fard ‘ayn (an individual obligation), and that it is not permissible for men to miss it, rather they have to attend, because the Prophetﷺenjoined that. He even commanded the women – including virgins and those who usually stayed in seclusion – to come out to the Eid prayer, and he commanded menstruating women to come out to the Eid prayer, but told them to keep away from the prayer-place itself, Sahih Al-Bukhari 971 and Sahih Muslim 1933 (Vol. 2, Book 15, Hadith 88)
And Muhammad Bin Ziyaad said: “I was with Abu Umaamah al-Baahilee (R) and some other companions of the Prophet ﷺ . When they returned from the Eed, they said to each other,
تَقَبَّلَ اللُه مِنّاَ وَمِنْكُمْ‘ Taqabbala ‘llaahu minnaa wa minkum.’ (May Allaah accept it from you and us)
Fath ul Bari 2:446and Ibn Qudaamah in al-Mughnee 2:259; Ahmad said that this has a good chain.
- The best of remembrance is La ilaha ilAllaah- لا اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ, Sahih Muslim; vol 4:2073, Tirmidhi 3383
- Reading “أستغفر الله” Astaghfirullah, Sahih Al Bukhari, Vol 8:319
- Reading “ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ”- ‘Subhan Allaah wa bihamdihi,’ 100 times a day, Sahih Al-Bukhari 6405 (Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 414)
- Reading سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ، سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ ”” ‘Subhan Allaah Al- `Azim and ‘Subhan Allaah wa bihamdihi.’ Sahih Al-Bukhari 6406 (Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 415)
- Reading (لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهْوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ) “La ilaha illal-lah wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahu-l-mulk wa lahul- hamd wa huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in qadir”, 100 times a daySahih Al-Bukhari 6403 (Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 412)
All the references of ahadith are taken from English books of ahadith and few of them are from Arabic books of ahadith. Opinions of scholars are taken from islamqa.info/en